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有关Google搜索的十项技巧
类型:相关链接日期::2015-09-13 20:35:52
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多数人在使用Google搜索的过程是非常低效和无谓的,如果只是输入几个关键词,然后按搜索按钮,你将是那些无法得到Google全部信息的用户,在这篇文章中,Google的搜索专家……

 【导语】多数人在使用Google搜索的过程是非常低效和无谓的,如果只是输入几个关键词,然后按搜索按钮,你将是那些无法得到Google全部信息的用户,在这篇文章中,Google的搜索专家Michael Miller迈克尔米勒将向您展示如何更智能、更高效地进行Google的系列搜索。


  Google是一个非常精密成熟的搜索引擎,但大多数的用户都没有能完全地利用到它的能力。一般人就是在Google的搜索框中输入一两个关键字,然后点击搜索按钮,等着Google显示出它第一页的搜索结果。这是一个相当简单模式匹配算法的搜索,不幸的是,通常此时出现的大部分都是并不需要的结果。

其实,还是有更好的方式能够让搜索产生一些更少、更为准确的结果。你所需要做的事只是学习一些简单的技巧,你就能很快得到更多更好的Google搜索结果。

Most people use Google in a very inefficient and often ineffective manner. If all you do is enter a few keywords and click the search button, you’re one of those users who don’t get as much out of Google as you could. In this article, Google expert Michael Miller shows you how to search smarter — and more effectively.

Google is a very sophisticated search engine, but most users don’t use its full power. The average user enters a keyword or two into Google’s search box, clicks the Search button, and waits for Google to display the first page of search results. This is a rather brute-force method of searching, unfortunately, and typically generates a ton of mostly unwanted results.

There is a better way to search—one that generates a smaller, more targeted list of results. All you have to do is implement a few simple tips, and you’ll soon be generating more and better Google search results.

技巧一:使用正确的方法
  无论你是使用一个简单或是高级的Google搜索,在此都存在你应该使用的某种可靠的方法。遵循适当的方法你就能获得非常准确的结果;要是忽略这条建议的话,你也许就会看到大量不相关的结果或是缺乏你想要的相关结果。

  虽然有很多不同(且同样有效的)方法用于网络搜索,我保证这个特别的方法将能带来最棒的结果。这是一个分六步骤的过程,如下:

1、首先,想好你想要寻找什么。哪些词能够最好地描述你要寻找的信息或者概念?哪些词是你能够用来替换的?有没有那些词是可以不必包括在你想要搜索的更好定义你的需求之内?

2、构建你的搜索要求。使用尽可能多你所需要的关键词;越多越好。如果皆存在可能的话,试着用适当的搜索操作来使你的搜索更精炼——或者,如果你愿意的话,可以使用高级搜索页面。

3、点击“搜索”按钮进行搜索。

4、评估一下搜索结果页面上的匹配程度。如果一开始的结果与你想要的不一致,再精炼你的搜索要求并重新搜索——或转向更合适的搜索站点再进行搜索。

5、选择你想要查看的匹配的页面,点击进行浏览。

6、保存这些最符合你需求的信息。

  换言之,这需要你在搜索之前思考清楚,接着在获得最初结果后精炼你的搜索。这些多做的努力都是轻微的,但确实很值得。

Tip #1: Use the Correct Methodology
Whether you’re conducting a basic or advanced Google search, there is a certain methodology you should employ. Follow the proper method and you’ll get very targeted results; ignore this advice and you’ll either get a ton of irrelevant results or a dearth of relevant ones.

While there are many different (and equally valid) approaches to web searching, I guarantee that this particular approach will generate excellent results. It’s a six-step process that looks like this:

Start by thinking about what you want to find. What words best describe the information or concept you’re looking for? What alternate words might you use instead? Are there any words that can be excluded from your search to better define your query?

Construct your query. Use as many keywords as you need; the more the better. If at all possible, try to refine your search with the appropriate search operators—or, if your prefer, with the Advanced Search page.

Click the Search button to perform the search.

Evaluate the matches on the Search Results page. If the initial results are not to your liking, refine your query and search again—or refine your search by switching to a more appropriate search site.

Select those matching pages that you wish to view and begin clicking through to those pages.

Save the information that best meets your needs.

In other words, it pays to think before you search—and to continue to refine your search after you obtain the initial results. The extra effort is slight, and well worth it.

技巧二:合理利用一个“与/或”的搜索
  大多数的用户都没有意识到,Google会自动假定一次搜索要求中所有的词之间都是一种“和”的关系。也就是,如果你输入两个词,它就会假定你所寻找的页面是包含这两个词的。它不会反馈给你仅包含其中一个词的页面。

  这就使得你无须在输入搜索要求时输入一个“和”。如果你想要搜索的包括“Bob”和“Ted”,你所需要做的就是输入bob ted即可。Google会自己假定一个“和”,并自动地将它包括在内部的索引搜索内。

这与在所要求的词之间假定“或”是不同的。例如,对比输入的要求“bob ted”(记得,这个实际上是bob和ted)与“bob或ted”。根据第一个要求所得的结果所包含的页面会共同提到Bob和Ted.而后者,结果所包含的页面会只单独提到Bob,也有些页面是单独提到Ted,还有一些是共同提到他们二者的。这是一个微妙的差异,但却是很重要的。

  因此,如果你想要一个“与/或”的搜索——搜索包括一个或另一个词的页面,但不一定是都包括二者——你必须在两个关键词之间插入一个带有“或者”功能的操作。当你输入这个“OR”的表示“或者”操作时,请确保所输入的要大写,否则Google会将它忽视为一个忽略的单词(stop word)——也我们接下去将要讲到的。

Tip #2: Conduct an “Either/Or” Search

Most users aren’t aware that Google automatically assumes the word “and” between all the words in a query. That is, if you enter two words, it assumes you’re looking for pages that include both those words—word one and word two. It doesn’t return pages that include only one or the other of the words

The upshot is that you don’t have to enter the word “and” in your query. If you’re searching for Bob and Ted, all you have to enter is bob ted. Google assumes the “and,” and automatically includes it in its internal index search.

This is different from assuming the word “or” between the words in your query. As an example, compare the query bob ted (which is really bob AND ted, remember) with bob OR ted. In the first query, the results include pages that mention both Bob and Ted. In the second query, the results include pages that mention Bob alone, as well as pages that mention Ted alone, as well as pages that mentioned both Bob and Ted. It’s a subtle difference, but an important one.

So if you want to conduct an “either/or” search—to search for pages that include one word or another word, but not necessarily both—you have to insert the OR operator between the two keywords. And when you use the OR operator, make sure to insert it in all uppercase, or Google will ignore it as a stop word—which we’ll discuss next.

技巧三:你的搜索中包括或不包括的词
  关于这些“and”和“or”的词,Google会自动地将这些在你输入的搜索要求中的不重要的、普通的词忽略掉。这些被称作是“忽略的单词”,包括“and”、“the,”、“where”、“how”、“what”、“or”(所有字母皆为小写,还有其它一些类似的词——包括一些单独的数字或单独的字母(例如 “a”)。

在搜索中包含忽略的单词并没有什么大碍,不过会使搜索速度有些下降,这就是Google将它们剔除的原因。举一个例子,你想要搜索的是“how a toaster works”(烤箱如何工作),Google会移除“how”和“a”两个词,并自行按新的更短的关键词“toaster works”进行搜索。

  如果你想要让这些一般的词包含在你的搜索要求内,你可以通过让Google必须在搜索中包含这些特定的词,使它不去排除“忽略的单词”。想要做到这点,你可以在你确实需要的词之前加上一个“+”符号。例如,要在搜索要求中包含“how”,你应该输入“+how”。请确保在+符号之前有一个空格符,而不是在它之后。

  从另一方面来说,有时你会想要通过排除一些包含特定词的页面来精炼你的搜索结果。你可以通过使用一个“-”号来去掉搜索结果中不想要包括在内的词;在你的搜索要求中任何之前加上了“-”符号的词都会自动地排除在搜索结果之外。同样地,也请记住在“-”符号之前留一个空格符。

  例如,如果你想要搜索“bass”,你所得到的页面可能会包括男歌手一类的或是关于鱼的一类的。如果你仅向搜索的是歌手这类的页面,输入搜索要求时应如下:“bass -fish”。

Tip #3: Include or Exclude Words in Your Search
Speaking of the words “and” and “or,” Google automatically ignores these and other small, common words in your queries. These are called stop words, and include “and,” “the,” “where,” “how,” “what,” “or” (in all lowercase), and other similar words—along with certain single digits and single letters (such as “a”).

Including a stop word in a search normally does nothing but slow the search down, which is why Google excises them. As an example, Google takes the query how a toaster works, removes the words “how” and “a,” and creates the new, shorter query toaster works.

If you want these common words included in your query, you can override the stop word exclusion by telling Google that it must include specific words in the query. You do this with the + operator, in front of the otherwise excluded word. For example, to include the word “how” in your query, you’d enter +how. Be sure to include a space before the + sign, but not after it.

On the other hand, sometimes you want to refine your results by excluding pages that include a specific word. You can exclude words from your search by using the – operator; any word in your query preceded by the – sign is automatically excluded from the search results. Remember to always include a space before the – sign, and none after.

For example, if you search for bass, you could get pages about the type of male singer or about the type of fish. If you want to search for the type of singer only, enter a query that looks like this: bass –fish.

技巧四:搜索近似的词
  不确定你在一次搜索中想要搜索的词是正确的?你是否担心一些页面会使用可替代的词来描述你想要的东西呢?

  幸运的是,Google能够让你搜索近似的词——叫做同义词——通过使用“~”符号。只要在想要搜索的词之前加上“~”符号,Google就会搜索所有包括这个词以及合适的近义词的页面。

例如,要搜索类似“elderly”的词,输入“~elderly”,所得到的页面就会不仅是包括“elderly”这个词,还会有包括“senior”、“older”、“aged”等等词的页面。

在此还有个额外的技巧:如果要只是列出近义词的页面,而不需要给出许多原先输入的那个词的页面,可以用“-”符号来连接“~”操作,例如“~keyword -keyword”。这样就能在近义词所得的结果中排除原先输入的词。在先前的例子中,要得到仅有“elderly”近义词的搜索结果,就输入“~elderly -elderly”即可。

Tip #4: Search for Similar Words
Not sure you’re thinking of the right word for a query? Do you worry that some web pages might use alternate words to describe what you’re thinking of?

Fortunately, Google lets you search for similar words—called synonyms—by using the ~ operator. Just include the ~ character before the word in question, and Google will search for all pages that include that word and all appropriate synonyms.

For example, to search for words that are like the word “elderly,” enter the query ~elderly. This will find pages that include not just the word “elderly,” but also the words “senior,” “older,” “aged,” and so on.

And here’s a bonus tip: To list only synonyms, without returning a ton of matches for the original word, combine the ~ operator with the – operator, like this: ~keyword -keyword. This excludes the original word from the synonymous results. Using the previous example, to list only synonyms for the word “elderly,” enter ~elderly -elderly.

技巧五:搜索特定的词组
  当你搜索一个特定词组时,如果你只是简单地输入词组中所有的词你是无法得到最好的结果的。Google也许能够反馈出包含这个词组的结果,但它也会列出包含你所输入所有词的结果,却未必让这些词按照正确的顺序。

如果你要搜索一个特定的词组,你应该将整个词组放在一个引号内。这样就能让Google搜索规定顺序的精确的关键词。

  例如,如果你要搜索“Monty Python”,你可以输入monty python作为你的搜索要求,接着你也许会获得可接受的结果;这些结果中会包含有着“monty”和“python”两个词的页面。但这些结果并不仅是包含了关于英国喜剧团体的页面,还包括了名叫Monty的蛇以及名叫Monty的家伙,他养了蛇来当宠物,还有其它一些包括了“monty”和“python”的词的页面,即使它们之间看起来似乎毫无关联。

为了将搜索结果限定在只关于Monty Python喜剧团之内,也就是你想要搜索的页面是按规定的顺序,将这两个词作为一个词组包含在内的,你就应该在输入搜索要求时输入“monty python”——确保这个词组在引号之内。这样的话,如果没有按照规定的顺序将这两个次匹配为一个精确的词组,这个页面就不会被列在搜索结果当中。

Tip #5: Search for an Exact Phrase
When you’re searching for an exact phrase, you won’t get the best results simply by entering all the words in the phrase as your query. Google might return results including the phrase, but it will also return results that include all those words—but not necessarily in that exact order.

When you want to search for an exact phrase, you should enclose the entire phrase in quotation marks. This tells Google to search for the precise keywords in the prescribed order.

For example, if you’re searching for Monty Python, you could enter monty python as your query, and you’d get acceptable results; the results will include pages that include both the words “monty” and “python.” But these results will include not only pages about the British comedy troupe, but also pages about snakes named Monty, and guys named Monty who have snakes for pets, and any other pages where the words “monty” and “python” occur—anywhere in the page, even if they don’t appear adjacent to one another.

To limit the results just to pages about the Monty Python troupe, you want to search for pages that include the two words in that precise order as a phrase. So you should enter the query “monty python”—making sure to surround the phrase with quotation marks. This way, if the word “monty” occurs at the top of a page and “python” occurs at the bottom, it won’t be listed in the search results.

技巧六:列出相似的页面
  你是否有发现过一个网页是你确实很喜欢的,又想知道是否还有与它类似的其它网页呢?不需要再疑虑地思考了;你可以使用Google的相关来寻找:这个操作算符所显示的页面会与特定的页面在某些方面是相似的。例如,如果你很喜欢InformIT上的文章,你可以通过输入“related: http://www.informit.com”来寻找类似的页面。

Tip #6: List Similar Pages
Have you ever found a web page you really like, and then wondered if there were any more like it? Wonder no more; you can use Google’s related: operator to display pages that are in some way similar to the specified page. For example, if you really like the articles at InformIT, you can find similar pages by entering related:http://www.informit.com.

技巧七:通过其它的操作算符调整你的搜索
  使用相关操作算符只是众多你可用来调整Google搜索结果的方法之一。所有的这些输入的操作算符都是以相同的方式工作的,将这些算符作为你搜索请求的一部分输入,再将变量紧接在这些输入的操作算符之后的冒号之后(而不是空格),就像这样:“‘操作算符’:‘变量’”。

有哪些搜索的操作算符是你可以利用的呢?以下是一个简短的清单:

Tip #7: Fine-Tune Your Search with Other Operators
The related: operator is just one of several operators you can use to fine-tune your Google search result. All these operators work the same way; enter the operator as part of your query, followed by the parameter for the operator directly after the colon (no spaces), like this: operator: parameter.

What search operators are available for your use? Here’s a short list:

技巧八:搜索特定的事实
  如果你要搜索一些客观事实,Google也许能够帮得上忙。是的,Google总是能够反馈给你一个匹配你指定的搜索要求的清单,但只要你能够正确地描述了你的搜索要求,且接着搜索的事实是Google已经预先鉴定了额,你就能在搜索结果页面的最顶端得到你所需要的精确信息。

我们在此谈到的有哪些类型的信息呢?是一些事实性的信息,例如诞生日、诞生地、人口等等。你所需要做的就是输入你想要知道的描述事实的搜索要求。例如:

要查询圣弗朗西斯科的人口,则输入“人口 圣弗朗西斯科”。

要查询马克•吐温在哪里出生,则输入“出生地 马克吐温”。

要查询总统比尔•克林顿什么时候出生,则输入“生日 比尔克林顿”。

要查询雷蒙德•钱德勒什么时候去世,则输入“去世 雷蒙德•钱德勒”。

要查询谁是德国总统,则输入“总统 德国”。

  这些问题的答案就会显示在搜索结果页面的顶部。你能够根据关联的网站获得应对你疑问的正确答案。点击相关的链接还能从这个资源里获悉更多的东西。

Tip #8: Search for Specific Facts
When you’re looking for hard facts, Google might be able to help. Yes, Google will always return a list of sites that match your specific query, but if you phrase your query correctly—and are searching for a fact that Google has pre-identified—you can get the precise information you need at the top of the search results page.

What types of information are we talking about here? Fact-based information, such as birthdates, birthplaces, population, and so on. All you have to do is enter a query that states the fact you want to know. For example:

To find the population of San Francisco, enter population san Francisco.

To find where Mark Twain was born, enter birthplace mark twain.

To find when President Bill Clinton was born, enter birthday bill clinton.

To find when Raymond Chandler died, enter die raymond chandler.

To find who is the president of Germany, enter president germany.

The answers to these questions are displayed at the top of your search results page. You get the precise answer to your question, according to the referenced website. Click the associated link to learn more from this source.

技巧九:搜索Google Directory
  Google在它的搜索数据库中将成千上万的网页索引化——这就能使得不会产生压倒性数量的搜索结果。量确实已经够了,但有时你也许会更愿意得到一些高质量的结果。

  由于质量较数量更为重要,就可以绕过主要的Google搜索引擎而使用Google Directory来代替。Google Directory是一个网页清单相对较小的数据库,它们都是通过一个人工编辑团队手动精心挑选的。Google Directory是有被注释和组织到相关的话题类目下的。你可以通过类目来浏览网页目录,或是搜索指定的项目。

Google Directory是一个可用来搜索大量Google网页索引实用选择。Google Directory的结果比起你在更大的搜索索引范围中的搜索结果更为集中且高质,也能够帮助你在任何给定的类目下更好地认识什么是可用的信息。另外,如果你喜欢,你也可以利用浏览类目来替代搜索。

  要进入Google Directory,点击Google主页上的“更多”链接,在接下来的页面中选择类别。当然,你也可以直接进入Google的Directory,只要在浏览器中输入directory.google.com即可。

Tip #9: Search the Google Directory
Google indexes billions and billions of web pages in its search database—which more often than not produces an overwhelming number of search results. The quantity is there, but sometimes you’d rather have a few quality results.

When quality matters more than quantity, bypass the main Google search engine and use the Google Directory instead. The Google Directory is a relatively small database of web page listings, each of which is handpicked by a team of human editors. The listings in the Google Directory are then annotated and organized into relevant topic categories. You can browse the directory via category, or search for specific terms.

The Google Directory is a useful alternative to searching the massive Google web page index. Google Directory results are more focused and of uniformly higher quality than what you find in the larger search index, and also help you to get a feel of what’s available in any given category. Plus, you get the advantage of browsing by category instead of searching, if that’s your style.

To access the Google Directory, click the More link on the Google home page and then select Directory on the following page. Alternately, you can go directly to the Google Directory by entering directory.google.com in your web browser.

技巧十:使用Google的其它专业搜索
Google Directory不仅仅是Google所提供的除了主搜索引擎之外的唯一选择。根据你所做的搜索类型,你也可以通过使用其中Google更为专业的搜索站点之一来得到更好的结果。它们包括:

Froogle可以用来搜索那些有着最低价格的特定商品的在线购物网站。

Google Answers所提供的服务是直接让你的搜索需求面向专业人员的小组,大多数都是用于当你有着更为复杂的问题,而无法通过简单的搜索来解答的时候。

Google Apple Macintosh Search主要是在apple.com域名中以及和其它与苹果相关的站点进行搜索。

Google Blog Search是用来搜索博客和博客文章的。

Google Book Search可以搜索成千上万的小说和非小说类图书的全文。

Google BSD UNIX Search可以搜索到大量专门为BSD版本的UNIX操作系统专业化的站点。

Google Groups可以搜索到Google Groups档案的相关文章。

Google Linux Search用来搜索大量与Linux相关的网站。

Google Microsoft Search可以搜索主要是microsoft.com域名中的内容以及其它微软相关的站点。

Google News可用来搜索大量有最新新闻和头条的新闻网站,也能够搜索历史的新闻资料,一直可以追溯到两个世纪之前。

Google Scholar在一个有着学术杂志、文章、报纸、论文和书籍的数据库中进行搜索,也能够选择大学或研究书库。

Google U.S. Government Search是用来搜索那些美国政府的网站——这是一个最好的用来搜索官方性政府举措、信息、报告等等的地方。

Google University Search能在一个有着超过600所大学网站的数据库中进行搜索——能够用来查询课程安排、入学资料等等。

Tip #10: Use Google’s Other Specialized Searches
The Google Directory isn’t the only alternative Google offers to its main search engine. Depending on the type of search you’re doing, you may get better results by using one of Google’s more specialized search sites. These include:

Froogle searches online shopping sites for the lowest prices on specific products.
Google Answers is a paid service that directs your queries to a team of professional researchers—great for when you have more involved questions that you can’t answer with a simple search query.
Google Apple Macintosh Search searches the main http://www.apple.com domain and other Apple-related sites.
Google Blog Search searches blogs and blog postings.
Google Book Search searches the full text of hundreds of thousands of fiction and non-fiction books.
Google BSD UNIX Search searches a variety of sites that specialize in the BSD version of the UNIX operating system.
Google Groups searches the UseNet archives for relevant articles and postings.
Google Linux Search searches a variety of Linux-related sites.
Google Microsoft Search searches the main http://www.microsoft.com domain and other Microsoft-related sites.
Google News searches a variety of news sites for up-to-the-minute news headlines—as well as historical newspaper archives dating back two centuries.
Google Scholar searches a database of scholarly journals, articles, papers, theses, and books, as well as select university and research libraries.
Google U.S. Government Search searches a variety of U.S. government websites—which makes it the best place to search for official government forms, information, reports, and the like.
Google University Search searches a database of more than 600 university websites—great for finding course schedules, admission information, and the like.

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